c1920s Antique Caucasian Persian Karabagh Rug 5.3x11.3
Karabakh, Karabagh, Artsakh, Ngorno-Karabahk, etc.. A mountainous region that is a subject of dispute between Azerbaijan to the east and Armenia to the west. The area is mostly Armenian in the lowlands and Kurds in the Mountains but it is historically part of Azerbaijan.
The Czarist Russians began to solidify their hold as early as 1805 - 1820 but they did not truly control the region for many years. With the capture of the great rebel religious leader Shamyl in 1859 and the end of the rebellion in 1864 did Czarist control truly solidify regional control. In 1865 to eliminate risk of future rebellion the Russians forced 1,2 million Caucasians to move to Turkey. I strongly suspect that areas such as Ngorno-Karabahk which were historically Moslem were depopulated and then repopulated with Armenians. As Christians the Armenians had an easier time with the Christian Russians.
The historical capitol Shusha was an ancient village in Karabakh that gained in importance when Panah Ali-khan Javanshir built a nearby fortress. From there he established himself as a Khan of an independent Khanate. Shusha was able to beat back the Persians in 1795 (VAR: SHUSHA -- City of Shusha, Karabakh region of Azerbaijan) but not many years later (1805) the Khanate fell to the Czarist Russians.